Information. In this slide is 500 years of information. Understanding cellular biology has taken centuries, and we are still scratching the surface. No greater illustration of this point exists than the role of “exosomes” (bottom right) in cell signaling. Contained in Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) bottom left, these packages of information contain mRNA sequences that can be delivered directly to target cells. What this means is that DNA does not need to be activated to produce sequences that lead to protein synthesis. Protein synthesis takes place at ribosomes (top picture). By delivering mRNA directly to cells, these cells can be told to produce structures such as proteoglycans (cartilage), and rate limiting enzymes in key metabolic pathways, without the need of turning on genes inside a cell. Don’t invest in a biology book for another 100 years, what’s written today will be replaced tomorrow

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